An accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) method has been developed for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in both atmospheric particulate and gaseous phases in this study. Extraction para-meters such as the combination of solvents, extraction temperature, and static extraction time were investigated and optimized. Effective extraction was achieved using a 3:1 mixture of n-hexane and acetone as extraction solvents at 100 C in 30min for all the compounds studied. The optimized extraction method was compared with conventional extraction methods and validated using National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)-certified standard refer-ence material (SRM) 1649a. The recoveries obtained for certified 12 PAHs were in the range of 82-126% with relative standard deviation (RSD) between 6 and 28%. The validated ASE technique was used followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the determination of PAHs distributed between gaseous and particulate phases in the atmosphere of Singapore. Total average concentrations of PAHs in air samples were 33.54±19.32 ng m-3, with 4.72±2.80 ng m-3 in particulate phase and28.82±16.92 ng m-3 in gaseous phase, respectively. The results obtained from this study are compared to those reported from other areas of the world.
- Accelerated solvent extraction
- Particulate and gaseous phases
- Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Analytical Chemistry
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Biochemistry, medical