Determinants of general practitioners' wages in England

Stephen Morris, Rosalind Goudie, Matt Sutton, Hugh Gravelle, Robert Elliott, Arne Risa Hole, Ada Ma, Bonnie Sibbald, Diane Skåtun

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


We analyse the determinants of annual net income and wages (net income/hours) of general practitioners (GPs) using data for 2271 GPs in England recorded during Autumn 2008. The average GP had an annual net income of £97 500 and worked 43 h per week. The mean wage was £51 per h. Net income and wages depended on gender, experience, list size, partnership size, whether or not the GP worked in a dispensing practice, whether they were salaried of self-employed, whether they worked in a practice with a nationally or locally negotiated contract, and the characteristics of the local population (proportion from ethnic minorities, rurality, and income deprivation). The findings have implications for pay discrimination by GP gender and ethnicity, GP preferences for partnership size, incentives for competition for patients, and compensating differentials for local population characteristics. They also shed light on the attractiveness to GPs in England of locally negotiated (personal medical services) versus nationally negotiated (general medical services) contracts.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)147-160
Number of pages14
JournalHealth Economics (United Kingdom)
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Contract
  • Family
  • General practitioner
  • Income
  • Physician
  • Wages

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Policy


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