Muhammad Waheed Iqbal, Tahreem Riaz, Xianghui Qi, Iqra Yasmin, Shahid Mahmood, Imran Mahmood Khan, Wahab Ali Khan, Muhammad Faisal Manzoor, Muhammad Bilal

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedingBook Chapterpeer-review


d-Psicose, a rare sugar is an epimer of d-fructose on the C-3 position and occurs in very minute quantity in nature. It is the substitute for sucrose having 70% of the sweetness of sucrose with zero calories. d-Psicose exhibits unique health and physiological benefits in the field of food, pharmaceutical, and agriculture. It is used against obesity, diabetes, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, inflammatory actions, and glucose tolerance in the body. Due to its scary nature, the chemical synthesis of d-psicose is very difficult, expensive, and laborious. Therefore, its production is currently attained by enzymatic bioconversion, generally ketose-3-epimerase plays an important role from d-fructose to d-psicose. Recently, ketose-3-epimerases from different bacterial strains have been experimentally identified and characterized as well as their crystal structures and mechanism have been anticipated from different strains. However, the research on molecular modification is insufficient, which could improve the enzymatic activities and thermostability via directed evolution and mutagenesis of an enzyme. Herein, an outline of recent advances regarding the biological production and characterization of d-psicose, as well as their physiological, pharmaceutical, food, and agricultural uses is mentioned in this chapter. Moreover, the comparison of biochemical characteristics of epimerases has been overviewed.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationValorization of Biomass to Bioproducts
Subtitle of host publicationBiochemicals and Biomaterials
Number of pages35
ISBN (Electronic)9780128228876
ISBN (Print)9780128230800
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Biological production
  • Ketose-3-epimerase
  • Physiological functions
  • d-Psicose

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Engineering
  • General Chemical Engineering


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