Culture of impunity and safety of journalists: Is safe journalism a distant dream in Pakistan?

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


Pakistan’s journalists confront fatal safety risks in the line of their duty and are
at the mercy of various types of pressure and extremist groups that threaten,
kidnap and even murder them with almost total impunity. Despite the growing
violence against journalists in Pakistan, there is a dearth of national academic
studies that offer insights into threats to journalists’ safety and the country’s
rampant culture of impunity. Therefore, using the system theory, this study
explores Pakistan’s issues of impunity and threats to journalists’ safety in conflict and non-conflict situations. The study also analyses the country’s laws for the protection of journalists’ rights to freedom of expression, access to information, online and offline safety, fair trial and equal pay-scales. In addition, the study unpacks the journalists’ lived experiences of safety risks in Pakistan and their perceptions regarding the country’s culture of impunity. To achieve these objectives, this study uses the qualitative methods of document review and indepth interviews (face-to-face). Moreover, the study uses thematic analysis to analyse the gathered data.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)51-84
JournalWorld of Media
Issue number0
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • Impunity
  • safety risks
  • journalists’ protection
  • legal system


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