Critical Perspectives of NGOs on Voluntary Corporate Environmental Reporting: Thai Public Listed Companies

Jittima Wichianrak, Tehmina Khan, David Teh, Steven Dellaportas

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review


This study examines the nature of environmental disclosures of Thai public listed companies (PLCs) which operate in environmentally sensitive industries and the factors affecting environmental disclosures as well as the need for a critical perspective from Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) on corporate environmental reporting. A semi-structured interview approach was used for 19 interviews to attain critical perspectives of NGOs on environmental reporting. Thematic analysis through the lens of legitimacy theory and stakeholder theory is undertaken to identify themes and patterns that emerged from the study. Findings of this study reveal that the lack of quantity and quality when it comes to corporate environmental reports are serious issues, thus activating civil society’s criticism. Quality issues are dominant for the lack of reliance on voluntary environmental reporting by NGOs. The government’s monitoring and regulatory compliance systems is key, which has been highlighted as another factor. NGOs prefer government information over environmental information reported by companies. There is strong support for third-party verification and assurance to make the reports more reliable and useful. This study adds to the environmental disclosures and reporting literature by providing insights into civil society perspectives on corporate environmental reporting in the context of a developing country—Thailand. It sheds light on how companies can improve their stakeholder management and engagement strategy. It provides recommendations which may be used to inform relevant policy makers in improving Thai disclosure regulation and compliance mechanisms to promote greater monitoring and accountability. It also suggests companies further explore and examine potential technologies to support their reporting.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6195
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • ESG
  • climate change
  • critical perspectives
  • environmental disclosures
  • environmental sustainability
  • governance
  • greenwashing
  • stakeholder engagement
  • stakeholder theory
  • sustainability accounting and accountability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


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