Critical Factors for Enhancing Students' Collaborative Learning Experiences in a Project-based Connectivism Learning Environment

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The advent of technology has led to a significant challenge in redesigning today's learning environment, as much technology is under-utilized in many classrooms, and educators still lack the confidence and proper theoretical frameworks to redesign their classes efficiently. The objective of this study was to design a project-based connectivism learning environment that transforms the traditional teacher-centered class environment into more student-centered learning approaches to enhance their collaborative learning experiences. Students were engaged in developing a group project and constructivism learning activities to complete their projects collaboratively. A mixed-method research design using four data collection instruments (survey, open-ended questions, interviews and online posts) was deployed on 300 participating students in a Malaysian university to investigate the critical factors for improving students' learning experiences within this learning environment. The Exploratory Factor Analysis performed yielded four factors, 1) Group Dynamics and Experiences, 2) Motivation, 3) Use of Technologies, and 4) Real-World Relevance. The findings demonstrated that students improved their collaborative skills, technology was better optimized, and Connectivism Learning effectively enhanced the student learning process. The resulting Multimedia-based Connectivism Learning Framework (MCLF) was successfully aligned with four shifts in the Malaysia Blueprint for Higher Education and may serve as a practical guideline for redesigning classrooms for 21st-century education.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)388-410
Number of pages23
JournalInternational Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023


  • Connectivism
  • Malaysia
  • multimedia
  • online learning
  • project-based learning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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