COVID-19: Insights into potential vaccines

Ke Yan Loo, Vengadesh Letchumanan, Hooi Leng Ser, Siew Li Teoh, Jodi Woan Fei Law, Loh Teng Hern Tan, Nurul Syakima Ab Mutalib, Kok Gan Chan, Learn Han Lee

Research output: Journal PublicationReview articlepeer-review

50 Citations (Scopus)


People around the world ushered in the new year 2021 with a fear of COVID-19, as family members have lost their loved ones to the disease. Millions of people have been infected, and the livelihood of many has been jeopardized due to the pandemic. Pharmaceutical companies are racing against time to develop an effective vaccine to protect against COVID-19. Researchers have developed various types of candidate vaccines with the release of the genetic sequence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in January. These include inactivated viral vaccines, protein subunit vaccines, mRNA vaccines, and recombinant viral vector vaccines. To date, several vaccines have been authorized for emergency use and they have been administered in countries across the globe. Meanwhile, there are also vaccine candidates in Phase III clinical trials awaiting results and approval from authorities. These candidates have shown positive results in the previous stages of the trials, whereby they could induce an immune response with minimal side effects in the participants. This review aims to discuss the different vaccine platforms and the clinical trials of the candidate vaccines.

Original languageEnglish
Article number605
Pages (from-to)1-19
Number of pages19
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • COVID-19
  • Clinical trials
  • Coronavirus (CoV)
  • Passive immunotherapies
  • Vaccines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Virology


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