We propose an integrative model on how contextual distance influences the learning process and performance of international strategic alliances (ISAs). We argue that contextual distance increases knowledge diversity but decreases knowledge exchange between the alliance partners, which has implications for the alliance's knowledge creation and performance. A meta-analysis of 46 empirical studies published between 1990 and 2013 dealing with Sino-foreign collaborations in China revealed that contextual distance showed an inverted U-shaped relationship with alliance performance. Proxies for partners' contextual experience, for example, the length of an alliance's operation in China, the foreign partners' in-country experiences, and ISAs' location in a more developed Chinese region, moderate the learning processes. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
- Contextual distance
- Contextual experience
- International strategic alliances
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Business and International Management
- Strategy and Management