Conceptualizing and assessing an integrated hierarchical leadership construct in education context

Lei Mee Thien, S. Mostafa Rasoolomanesh, Ashley Ng, T. Ramayah

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The issues of measurement model misspecification and multicollinearity in leadership literaturehas provoked the current study to conceptualize and assess an integrated hierarchical Bass’s (1985) transformational and transactional leadership construct in education context. This study employed quantitative cross-sectional survey method. Data were collected from 322 teachers who were selected from 20 Malaysian secondary schools. Partial least squares structural
equation modeling (PLS-SEM) approach with WarpPLS 5.0 was used to analyze the data. Convergent and discriminant validity of the six reflective first-order constructs were warranted. Results of redundancy analysis, significant weights, and acceptable variance inflation factor values supported the proposed third-order integrated hierarchical leadership construct. Results inform an implication on generating new knowledge regarding a hierarchical perspective of transformational and transactional leadership. Using PLS-SEM approach with
new algorithms to assess the integrated hierarchical leadership construct can be a methodological contribution of this study. Limitations, implications, and suggestions for future studies were discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)15-30
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Applied Structural Equation Modelling
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 13 Jan 2019


  • Malaysia
  • measurement model
  • partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLSSEM
  • transformational leadership
  • transactional leadership


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