Comparative Study on Two Modular Spoke-Type PM Machines for In-Wheel Traction Applications

Hengliang Zhang, Wei Hua, David Gerada, Chris Gerada, Yugang Li, Guang Zhang

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


This paper focuses on the comparative analysis of modular spoke-Type permanent magnet machines with two magnetization modes, which are referred to as M-I and M-II types. The analytical models of the proposed machines are built based on the simple magneto-motive-force-permeance method. With the help of finite element analysis and the analytical models, magnetic fields in machines with different magnetization modes are compared. Then, taking as a base an existing commercial in-wheel machine used in an electric motorcycle, two proposed machines with different magnetization modes are designed as in-wheel traction machines and compared with respect to electromagnetic torque, flux-weakening performance, over-load capability, etc. The machines are prototyped and experimentally tested to verify the prediction that the M-II machines exhibit a higher torque output whereas the M-I machines have a wider speed range.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8758882
Pages (from-to)2137-2147
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2019


  • AC machines
  • brushless machines
  • in-wheel traction
  • permanent magnet machines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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