Comparative Insights into the Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Nutritional Potential of the Solanum nigrum Complex

Ayesha Mohyuddin, Tonni Agustiono Kurniawan, Zaheer Ud Din Khan, Sohail Nadeem, Mohsin Javed, Ayed A. Dera, Shahid Iqbal, Nasser S. Awwad, Hala A. Ibrahium, Mohammed A.S. Abourehab, Sameh Rabea, Eslam B. Elkaeed, Muhammad Nadeem Asghar, Shagufta Saeed

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Against the seven bacteria tested, the five taxa studied had varying antibacterial activity. Plant extracts were discovered to be as efficient as antibiotics in certain circumstances. All plants had moderate DPPH free radical scavenging activity, but S. chenopodioides performed the best. In the ABTS experiment, S. retroflexum had the highest Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, with a TEAC of 33.88 mM/100 g of dry weight. The therapeutic potential of specific plants may therefore be used to evaluate their functioning and chemical makeup. Highlights: Solanum nigrum is a traditional medicinal plant renowned as a cure for many diseases due to the presence of bioactive compounds. The Solanum nigrum complex refers to a group of more than 30 closely related but morphologically distinct taxa. Five indigenous taxa of this complex were investigated for their medicinal potential by using methanolic extracts. The efficacy of each plant was different for each of the seven bacteria studied. On comparing the MIC values, S. americanum was found to be most potent against Bacillus licheniformis (34 µg/mL), S. chenopodioides against Escherichia coli (78 µg/mL), S. nigrum against Bacillus licheniformis (49 µg/mL) and Escherichia coli (49 µg/mL), S. retroflexum against Escherichia coli (30 µg/mL), and S. villosum against Proteus mirabilis (45 µg/mL). The extracts were also subjected to six antioxidant assays. Moderate scavenging activity was observed by all plants in the DPPH free radical assay, but S. chenopodioides was the most effective. The total phenolic contents of the five plants were comparable, but the gallic acid equivalents of S. americanum and S. nigrum were the highest (26.58 mg/100 g GAE). The highest Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity was observed for S. retroflexum, with the ABTS assay giving a TEAC value of 33.88 mM/100 g of dry weight. Metal-chelating activity against Fe2+ was observed to be highest for S. chenopodioides (70.37%). The FRAP value of S. nigrum was the highest (8.5 mM FeSO4·7H2O) among all taxa. The lipid peroxidation trend was very similar for all five samples. The results suggest the specified medicinal use of different members of the Solanum nigrum complex, which will also have significant nutritional value.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1455
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • antibacterial potential
  • antioxidant potential
  • herbal medicine
  • methanol extract
  • nutritional value
  • Solanum nigrum complex

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Process Chemistry and Technology


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