Chemical stabilisation of sandstone road aggregate layers: a literature review: A Literature Review

Amalina Ali, Elsaid M.M. Zahran, Soon Jian Tan, Nurul Hasan

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

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The increasing demand for aggregates for road construction and development has led to increased exploitation of mineral resources, resulting in their scarcity. This has an adverse effect on the environment as well as the cost of road development, especially when local aggregates are of poor quality and not suitable for road construction, requiring long-distance transportation or importation from another country. An approach that could be more cost-effective is the chemical stabilisation of locally available weak aggregates such as sandstone. This paper reviewed the most commonly used traditional and non-traditional additives for the stabilisation of road aggregate layers. The literature review focused on the type of soil for which each additive is best suited, the binding mechanism involved and the advantages and limitations of using each additive for soil stabilisation. It was found that the majority of the existing literature had focused on the chemical stabilisation of conventional road materials and demolition and waste aggregates for use in pavement base and/or subbase layers, but only a few looked into sandstone chemical stabilisation. Sandstone aggregate investigations have been limited to either cement and/or polymer stabilisation for road aggregate layers or cement concrete mixtures for building construction. As a result, this paper revealed a knowledge gap regarding the strength development of sandstone road aggregate layers after stabilisation with fly ash and lime, either separately or in combination, which is predominantly measured in terms of the unconfined compressive strength, indirect tensile strength, and California Bearing Ratio. Future research to address the gap in knowledge will provide insight into a potentially cost-effective alternative and sustainable road construction by utilising locally available sandstone aggregate and fly ash waste material.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication8th Brunei International Conference on Engineering and Technology 2021
EditorsMohammad Yeakub Ali, Rama Rao Karri, Shahriar Shams, Roslynna Rosli, Ena Kartina Abdul Rahman, Ramesh Singh
PublisherAmerican Institute of Physics Inc.
Number of pages9
ISBN (Electronic)9780735442795
Publication statusPublished - 10 Jan 2023
Externally publishedYes
Event8th Brunei International Conference on Engineering and Technology 2021, BICET 2021 - Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam
Duration: 8 Nov 202110 Nov 2021

Publication series

NameAIP Conference Proceedings
ISSN (Print)0094-243X
ISSN (Electronic)1551-7616


Conference8th Brunei International Conference on Engineering and Technology 2021, BICET 2021
Country/TerritoryBrunei Darussalam
CityBandar Seri Begawan


  • Sandstones
  • aggregates
  • soil stabilisation
  • cement
  • lime
  • polymer
  • fly ash
  • pavement
  • base
  • subbase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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