Challenges and Future opportunities of Hairpin Technologies

A. Arzillo, P. Braglia, S. Nuzzo, D. Barater, G. Franceschini, D. Gerada, C. Gerada

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)


Hairpin windings are seeing an ever-increasing application and development in electrical machines designed for high power and torque densities. In fact, due to their inherently high fill factor, they are very attractive in applications, such as transportation, where these characteristics are considered main design objectives. On the other hand, high operating frequencies also contribute to improve power density of electrical machines. However, at high fundamental frequencies, hairpin windings are characterised by increased Joule losses due to skin and proximity effects. Hence, while these technologies are introducing new opportunities, a number of challenges still need to be addressed. These include manufacturing aspects, contacting processes, thermal management, etc. This paper presents an overview of the current state-of-the-art of hairpin technologies and propose possible future opportunities. The authors' perspective is then finally provided, showing how innovative winding patterns can potentially overcome the above mentioned challenges.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2020 IEEE 29th International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, ISIE 2020 - Proceedings
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9781728156354
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2020
Event29th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, ISIE 2020 - Delft, Netherlands
Duration: 17 Jun 202019 Jun 2020

Publication series

NameIEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics


Conference29th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, ISIE 2020


  • Contacting
  • fill factor
  • hairpin
  • modelling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Control and Systems Engineering


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