Biochemical and electrochemical characterization of biofilms formed on everolimus-eluting coronary stents

Gauhar Akhmetzhan, Kayode Olaifa, Michael Kitching, Paul A. Cahill, Tri T. Pham, Obinna M. Ajunwa, Enrico Marsili

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Drug-eluting stents (DES) are mostly used in percutaneous coronary intervention, which is the main treatment for coronary artery occlusion. This procedure aims to restore the natural lumen, while minimizing the risk of restenosis. However, stent insertion increases the risk for infections, due to contamination of the device or insertion hub with normal skin flora. While coronary stent infection is a rare complication, it can be fatal. Currently, there is little information on biofilm formation on everolimus-eluting stents. Although everolimus is not designed as an antimicrobial agent, its antimicrobial activity should be investigated. In this study, biofilm formation on everolimus-eluting and bare metal stents (BMS) is characterized through biochemical and electrochemical methods. DES and BMS are inoculated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis, both independently and in co-culture. Biofilms formed on DES were 49.6 %, 12.9 % and 47.5 % higher than on BMS for P. aeruginosa, S. epidermidis and their co-culture, respectively. Further, the charge output for DES was 18.9 % and 59.7 % higher than BMS for P. aeruginosa and its co-culture with S. epidermidis, respectively. This observation is most likely due to higher surface roughness of DES, which favors biofilm formation. This work shows that bioelectrochemical methods can be used for rapid detection of biofilms on drug-eluting and bare metal stents, which may find application in quality assessment of stents and in characterization of stents removed after polymicrobial infections.

Original languageEnglish
Article number110156
JournalEnzyme and Microbial Technology
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Bioelectrochemistry
  • Biofilm
  • Drug-eluting stent
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Bioengineering
  • Biochemistry
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology


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