An Investigation into the Compaction of Sandstone Aggregates Stabilised with Cement and Fly Ash

Nurul Amalina Ashikin Binti Ali, Eng Hie Tan, Soon Jiann Tan, Elsaid Mamdouh Mahmoud Zahran, Nurul Hasan

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This paper experimentally investigated the compaction properties of sandstone aggregate stabilised with a mixture of Portland composite cement and Class F fly ash. It determined the influence of fly ash content on the maximum dry density, optimum moisture content and air void content of the stabilised sandstone using the 2.5 kg rammer compaction method. Fly ash contents of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% by mass of aggregate were added to sandstone aggregate samples with a constant cement content of 5% by mass of aggregate. The investigation showed that the maximum dry density peaked at 5% cement without fly ash, while the optimum moisture content was the lowest among all investigated fly ash contents. It also showed that for every increment of 10% fly ash with a constant 5% cement content, the maximum dry density decreased linearly, and the optimum moisture content increased exponentially. From 10 to 30% fly ash content, the air void content increased and subsequently decreased from 30 to 40% fly ash content. The investigation concluded that fly ash is an effective stabiliser when cement-to-fly ash ratios are between 1:2 and 1:4 and should not exceed 1:6.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of 5th International Conference on Civil Engineering and Architecture
Subtitle of host publicationProceedings of ICCEA 2022
EditorsThomas Kang
Place of PublicationSingapore
Number of pages10
ISBN (Electronic)9789819940493
ISBN (Print)9789819940486, 9789819940776
Publication statusPublished Online - 1 Oct 2023

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Civil Engineering


  • Road Stabilization
  • Pavement Sustainability
  • Fly ash
  • Pavement Compaction


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