Recognition and localization of surgical detailed actions is an essential component of developing a context-aware decision support system. However, most existing detection algorithms fail to provide high-accuracy action classes even having their locations, as they do not consider the surgery procedure’s regularity in the whole video. This limitation hinders their application. Moreover, implementing the predictions in clinical applications seriously needs to convey model confidence to earn entrustment, which is unexplored in surgical action prediction. In this paper, to accurately detect fine-grained actions that happen at every moment, we propose an anchor-context action detection network (ACTNet), including an anchor-context detection (ACD) module and a class conditional diffusion (CCD) module, to answer the following questions: 1) where the actions happen; 2) what actions are; 3) how confidence predictions are. Specifically, the proposed ACD module spatially and temporally highlights the regions interacting with the extracted anchor in surgery video, which outputs action location and its class distribution based on anchor-context interactions. Considering the full distribution of action classes in videos, the CCD module adopts a denoising diffusion-based generative model conditioned on our ACD estimator to further reconstruct accurately the action predictions. Moreover, we utilize the stochastic nature of the diffusion model outputs to access model confidence for each prediction. Our method reports the state-of-the-art performance, with improvements of 4.0% mAP against baseline on the surgical video dataset.