A varactor-based 1024-element RIS design for mm-waves

Luis G. da Silva, Z. Chu, Pei Xiao, Arismar Cerqueira S

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review


This paper reports a reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) for beamforming and beam steering applications operating in the millimeter wave (mm-waves) frequency band. The proposed 2-bit RIS design is implemented using a radar cross-section (RCS) approach in ANSYS HFSS for performance evaluation and system-level analysis. It is based on split-ring resonator (SRR) unit cells, tuned by varactor diodes, comprising 1,024 elements arranged in a 32 × 32 matrix with linear gradient phase configuration operating at 24.5 GHz over the fifth generation of mobile communications New Radio (5G NR) frequency range 2 (FR2). A beam steering from −60° to 60° in the azimuth plane is demonstrated for mm-waves coverage extension. Numerical simulations of RCS patterns from −10° to −60° and from 10° to 60° with approximately 3 dB scan loss manifest the applicability of the proposed RIS towards the sixth generation of mobile communications (6G). Furthermore, simulated results of angular reciprocity prove the RIS response up to 110° under an oblique incident wave at 60°. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest RIS angular reciprocity reported in the literature, validating its application to coverage extension from −60° to 60°. In addition, the RCS level and reflected angle relationship are modeled for system-level analysis purposes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1086011
JournalFrontiers in Communications and Networks
Publication statusPublished - 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • 6G
  • B5G
  • beam steering
  • beamforming
  • metamaterial
  • reconfigurable intelligent surface
  • reflectarray

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Signal Processing


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