A three-tier ICT access model for intention to participate online: a comparison of developed and developing countries

Younghoon Chang, Siew Fan Wong, Myeong Cheol Park

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)


The digital divide between countries is a critical phenomenon separating the countries that ‘have’ (mostly developed countries) from the countries that ‘have not’ (mostly developing countries). It places developing countries in a disadvantaged position economically, politically, and socially that in turns affects the life and social well-being of the citizens. Current understanding of the digital divide is limited by usage of secondary data, which prompts scholars to call for more theoretically-based empirical research. Since the key to reducing the digital divide is to increase people’s access to ICT, this study developed and empirically tested a 3-tier ICT access model to determine the effect on ICT development of intention to participate in online activities among citizens in developed and developing countries. The model was founded on three existing research frameworks. In addition, this study theoretically clarified the relationship between four types of ICT access and how they contribute to intention to participate online. Survey data of university students from Korea and Cambodia was collected. The results confirm the effect of ICT development on citizens’ intention and isolate key factors that impact the two countries differently. Technological access was found to impact extrinsic motivational access and skills access. Social access influenced extrinsic and intrinsic motivational access and skills access. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)226-242
Number of pages17
JournalInformation Development
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Cambodia
  • cross-national comparison
  • digital divide
  • ICT access
  • ICT development
  • Korea
  • online participation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Library and Information Sciences


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