A Thermal Modeling Approach and Experimental Validation for an Oil Spray-Cooled Hairpin Winding Machine

Fengyu Zhang, David Gerada, Zeyuan Xu, Chuan Liu, He Zhang, Tianjie Zou, Yew Chuan Chong, Chris Gerada

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)


While the electromagnetic aspects of hairpin windings are actively being investigated and discussed in recent literature, including the design rules together with the loss calculation and reduction techniques, the thermal performance and modeling aspects have received less attention to date. In hairpin windings, the conductors (pins) are comparatively larger and arranged as separate components in parallel within the slot. In contrast, conductors randomly overlap and contact each other for traditional random windings. The differences in the aforementioned winding physical characteristics result in a different methodology to develop the thermal network. This article presents a 3-D lumped parameter thermal network (LPTN) approach for an oil-spray cooled hairpin winding, which includes the slot thermal model configuration, the end-winding connections, together with different methodologies of analyzing the end-winding sprayed oil characteristics. The aforesaid thermal model captures unique features related to the winding technology and cooling mechanism, such as the nonuniform end-winding temperature caused by the uneven oil-spray cooling effects. Finally, taking an existing propulsion drive hairpin stator and a bespoke-designed test setup, the presented steady-state thermal modeling approach is experimentally validated covering various experimental tests, including different spray conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2914-2926
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2021


  • End winding
  • hairpin winding
  • oil spray
  • propulsion
  • steady state
  • thermal network

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Transportation
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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