A survey of secure time synchronization

Research output: Journal PublicationReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Today, the use of wireless sensor networks has grown rapidly; however, wireless sensor networks are prone to receiving cyber-physical attacks. Time synchronization is a fundamental requirement for protocols in wired and wireless sensor network applications; hence, secure time synchronization is also crucial. This paper presents an introduction to time synchronization, including the concepts, challenges, and requirements of time synchronization protocols. The scope of the paper includes both software- and hardware-based protocols. Then, different time synchronization methods are analyzed. Moreover, research progress in secure time synchronization is reviewed. The survey also discusses the weaknesses of current secure time synchronization protocols and provides suggestions for future research directions. This survey aims to highlight research progress and trends in time synchronization and secure time synchronization.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3923
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023


  • security
  • time synchronization
  • wired networks
  • wireless sensor networks

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Instrumentation
  • General Engineering
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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