A non-coaxial critical state soil model and its application to simple shear simulations

Yunming Yang, Hai Sui Yu

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review

56 Citations (Scopus)


The yield vertex non-coaxial theory is implemented into a critical state soil model, CASM (Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth. Geomech. 1998; 22:621-653) to investigate the non-coaxial influences on the stress-strain simulations of real soil behaviour in the presence of principal stress rotations. The CASM is a unified clay and sand model, developed based on the soil critical state concept and the state parameter concept. Without loss of simplicity, it is capable of simulating the behaviour of sands and clays within a wide range of densities. The non-coaxial CASM is employed to simulate the simple shear responses of Erksak sand and Weald clay under different densities and initial stress states. Dependence of the soil behaviour on the Lode angle and different plastic flow rules in the deviatoric plane are also considered in the study of non-coaxial influences. All the predictions indicate that the use of the non-coaxial model makes the orientations of the principal stress and the principal strain rate different during the early stage of shearing, and they approach the same ultimate values with an increase in loading. These ultimate orientations are dependent on the density of soils, and independent of their initial stress states. The use of the non-coaxial model also softens the shear stress evolutions, compared with the coaxial model. It is also found that the ultimate shear strengths by using the coaxial and non-coaxial models are dependent on the plastic flow rules in the deviatoric plane.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1369-1390
Number of pages22
JournalInternational Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2006


  • Critical state model
  • Non-coaxial plasticity
  • Numerical simulation
  • Simple shear
  • Soils

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computational Mechanics
  • Materials Science (all)
  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Mechanics of Materials


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