A four dukkha state-space model for hand tracking

Kian Ming Lim, Alan W.C. Tan, Shing Chiang Tan

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, we propose a hand tracking method which was inspired by the notion of the four dukkha: birth, aging, sickness and death (BASD) in Buddhism. Based on this philosophy, we formalize the hand tracking problem in the BASD framework, and apply it to hand track hand gestures in isolated sign language videos. The proposed BASD method is a novel nature-inspired computational intelligence method which is able to handle complex real-world tracking problem. The proposed BASD framework operates in a manner similar to a standard state-space model, but maintains multiple hypotheses and integrates hypothesis update and propagation mechanisms that resemble the effect of BASD. The survival of the hypothesis relies upon the strength, aging and sickness of existing hypotheses, and new hypotheses are birthed by the fittest pairs of parent hypotheses. These properties resolve the sample impoverishment problem of the particle filter. The estimated hand trajectories show promising results for the American sign language.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)311-319
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - 6 Dec 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Four dukkha
  • Hand tracking
  • State-space model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science Applications
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Artificial Intelligence


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