4 Is: a conceptual framework to drive curriculum development

Mattia MIANI, Miao Wang, Shih-Ching Huang

Research output: Journal PublicationArticlepeer-review


In this article, the authors aim to propose a conceptual framework based on four principles - integration, inspirational teaching, inclusiveness, and innovation - named the 4 Is. The framework, developed through reflective practice, addresses the current literature gap on curriculum development in foundation years and a number of challenges faced by foundation programmes in transnational universities in China. The framework is presented both in narrative and visual forms, the latter taking the shape of a dandelion flower to signify the non-hierarchical and flexible nature of the dimensions characterising each principle. The authors will discuss examples of curriculum changes inspired by the framework that they carried out in a foundation year in a transnational campus in Mainland China.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)111-123
JournalFoundation Year Network Journal
Publication statusPublished - 2022


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