3D and 4D printing of biomaterials and biocomposites, bioinspired composites, and related transformers

Lewis R. Hart, Yinfeng He, Laura Ruiz-Cantu, Zuoxin Zhou, Derek Irvine, Ricky Wildman, Wayne Hayes

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedingBook Chapterpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


The advent of additive manufacturing (AM) or 3D printing as a tool for producing multifunctional and multimaterial objects has inspired great interest from the scientific community in various engineering and biomedical fields. This chapter will explore the recent developments in biomaterials and their composites for use in 3D and 4D printing. The expanding library of bioinks, ranging from synthetic polymers to ceramics to living cells, is discussed and their deposition via a number of AM processes, including stereolithography (SLA), extrusion printing, inkjet printing, and selective laser sintering, described. Furthermore, 4D printing is introduced as an emerging technology where time is integrated within the printing process, allowing objects to change their shape or function in response to external stimuli. Finally, the novel applications of the complex bioconstructs produced are examined with emphasis on the advantages or disadvantages of this emerging technology.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication3D and 4D Printing of Polymer Nanocomposite Materials
Subtitle of host publicationProcesses, Applications, and Challenges
Number of pages38
ISBN (Electronic)9780128168059
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • 3D printing
  • 4D printing
  • Additive manufacturing
  • Biocomposites
  • Bioink formulations
  • Biomaterials
  • Extrusion printing
  • Inkjet printing
  • Selective laser sintering
  • Stereolithography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Engineering
  • General Materials Science


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