To investigate the seasonal variations and sources of carbonaceous aerosols in the cities of Hangzhou and Ningbo, field PM 2.5 sampling was conducted at four representative sites (two urban, one suburban, and one rural) in this region from December 2014 to November 2015. A thermal/optical carbon analyzer was employed to analyze both organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) contents in PM 2.5 by identifying eight different carbon fractions, including OC1, OC2, OC3, OC4+OPC, EC1-OPC, EC2, and EC3. Based on these fractions, OC and EC were defined as OC1+OC2+OC3+OC4+OPC and EC1+EC2+EC3-OPC, respectively; total carbon (TC) was calculated as the sum of OC and EC; and total carbonaceous aerosols (TCAs) were quantified via the sum of organic aerosols (OAs; converted from OC) and EC. The results showed the following. ①The annual average level of TC in this region was (14.3±4.1) μg•m -3 , accounting for (26.2±6.5)% of the annual average PM 2.5 concentration. The annual average OC and EC concentrations were (11.3±3.4) μg•m -3 and (3.0±0.9) μg•m -3 , respectively. The highest TC level was observed in winter among the four seasons. ②The annual average TCA concentration in this region was (25.6±7.5) μg•m -3 , contributing (42.2±10.0)% of PM 2.5 . In addition, secondary organic carbon (SOC) was also estimated by the commonly applied EC method. It was found that SOC contributed (41.1±5.5)% to OC on an annual average basis. ③The sources of carbonaceous aerosols were determined using the correlation between OC and EC, OC/EC mass ratio, and different carbon fraction characteristics. The annual average OC/EC ratio in this region was 4.7±1.7, which falls in the diagnostic ratio range for vehicular emissions, coal combustion, and biomass burning, indicating these sources are probably the major contributors of the regional carbonaceous aerosols. Moreover, a higher char-EC/soot-EC ratio was observed during winter and autumn at all sites, possibly implying the enhanced biomass burning activities during these two seasons.
|Translated title of the contribution||Characteristics and Source Analysis of Atmospheric Carbonaceous Aerosols in the Cities of Hangzhou and Ningbo|
|Original language||Chinese (Traditional)|
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Huanjing Kexue/Environmental Science|
|Publication status||Published - 15 Aug 2018|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Science (all)