The examination of the implementation of learning in regular classes(LRC) from the perspectives of teachers

  • Xiaojing JIN

Student thesis: EdD Thesis


The Learning in Regular Classes (LRC) , deemed as a variation of inclusive
education, has been implemented for three decades in China. However, the
effectiveness and success of LRC programme is being questioned in recent years due to students’ low academic achievement in LRC classes. This study was designed to understand how LRC was implemented and what issues were arising from the perspectives of teachers. This study employed qualitative case study methodology. Three elementary schools were selected as sample schools. In-depth interviews with teachers, observations and documents reviews were utilised to collect the data. Guided by ‘index for inclusion’ ((Booth & Ainscow, 2002), findings are presented in terms of the three dimensions of cultures, policies, and practices. The findings indicate that although working in the same school, teachers’ attitudes towards students with special education needs were discrepant due to their different positions, and an inclusive community has not been established. Moreover, lack of practical training, lack of parental support, unclear workload identification standard and limited curricula adaption and strategies modification have been barriers for the practice of the LRC. Meanwhile, there is consensus among all the teachers that LRC is beneficial for students with special education needs. Implications that optimise the training system for mainstream school teachers, set the criteria for workload identification and performance evaluation and further spread the idea of inclusive education are discussed.
Date of AwardNov 2023
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • University of Nottingham
SupervisorAnwei Feng (Supervisor) & John Trent (Supervisor)


  • learning in regular classes
  • inclusive education
  • China

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