A gamificative-based information coordination framework for building design practice to improve business operation performance

  • Tianlun YANG

Student thesis: PhD Thesis


Poor information coordination in building design practises, including inadequate comprehension, insufficient communication and inefficient collaboration, results in low productivity. The business performance of building design companies is highly dependent on production delivery qualities and efficiencies. Lack of data accessibility, including poor data coordination, prevents the client and other project stakeholders from having a clear understanding of certain details of the building. Consequently, the project faces a range of challenges such as increased uncertainties (e.g., functional and spatial disorders), leading to repetitive modification and delay in the delivery of design drawings. Despite the existence of the Building Information Modelling (BIM) paradigm and its relevant technologies, it is still unclear how building design practices can be improved to ensure better business operations performance. Current practices in building design companies are still largely based on traditional schemes, with little impact from BIM. Hence, it is vital that building design catches up with the rest of society, in terms of digital transformation.

Therefore, this research aims to propose a conceptual framework for guiding building design companies to improve their business operation. This framework incorporates the BIM paradigm from a business angle, aiming to help building design practices to improve their business operations and thus impact positively on client satisfaction. The research has three core objectives: to investigate issues in building design; to understand the features of LOD 350, ISO 19650, and Gamification; and to explore how information coordination can impact the business operation of building design companies.

On this basis, the researcher has used an interpretative-oriented paradigm, which uses the mixed-method approach to explore why and how a gamificative environment can impact building design business operation. The first stage uses primary data from semi-structured interviews and secondary data from literature reviews to explore the solutions from management, technologies, and standards, identified through the integration of ISO 19650, LOD 350, and Gamificative Technologies. The second stage uses the primary qualitative data from evaluations through intervention studies to test the proposed conceptual framework; research has identified that different gamificative technologies have the same impact on building design business operation. The third stage uses both qualitative and quantitative data from focus group discussions and a survey to measure the proposed conceptual framework in terms of feasibility and strength. Findings have shown that all features and factors within the gamificative environment have a significant impact on building design business operations.

Findings show that the business operation of building design companies is impacted by their productivity. With the features from Gamification, LOD 350, and ISO 19650, both stakeholders and design teams, in collaboration with the client, can have a better understanding of the building project through a realistic and interactive environment that incorporates spatial data coordination with design information. In addition, research shows that increased information coordination improves capabilities in decision-making, collaboration, communication, and management. Hence the quality and the schedule of the building design is being improved in such a way to increase design productivity based on clients’ wishes through enhanced business operation performance.

The novelty of this research is that it has incorporated a Gamificative-based Environment with building design practises for connecting BIM models and design development by adopting immersive and interactive visualization technologies to increase the engagement between client and architect over a common data environment that advocates and thus improves design business operations. By adopting this approach, this research can help the building sector (in particular, architecture) to adopt this concept to develop their competitive advantage and manage to grow and sustain their businesses operation in a more intelligent, effective, and efficient way.
Date of AwardMar 2023
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • University of Nottingham
SupervisorByung Gyoo Kang (Supervisor)


  • Gamificative Environment
  • Interactive and Immersive Technologies
  • Information Coordination
  • Business Operation

Cite this