Review on Methylene Blue: Its Properties, Uses, Toxicity and Photodegradation

Idrees Khan, Khalid Saeed, Ivar Zekker, Baoliang Zhang, Abdulmajeed H. Hendi, Ashfaq Ahmad, Shujaat Ahmad, Noor Zada, Hanif Ahmad, Luqman Ali Shah, Tariq Shah, Ibrahim Khan

Research output: Journal PublicationReview articlepeer-review

565 Citations (Scopus)


The unavailability of clean drinking water is one of the significant health issues in modern times. Industrial dyes are one of the dominant chemicals that make water unfit for drinking. Among these dyes, methylene blue (MB) is toxic, carcinogenic, and non-biodegradable and can cause a severe threat to human health and environmental safety. It is usually released in natural water sources, which becomes a health threat to human beings and living organisms. Hence, there is a need to develop an environmentally friendly, efficient technology for removing MB from wastewater. Photodegradation is an advanced oxidation process widely used for MB removal. It has the advantages of complete mineralization of dye into simple and nontoxic species with the potential to decrease the processing cost. This review provides a tutorial basis for the readers working in the dye degradation research area. We not only covered the basic principles of the process but also provided a wide range of previously published work on advanced photocatalytic systems (single-component and multi-component photocatalysts). Our study has focused on critical parameters that can affect the photodegradation rate of MB, such as photocatalyst type and loading, irradiation reaction time, pH of reaction media, initial concentration of dye, radical scavengers and oxidising agents. The photodegradation mechanism, reaction pathways, intermediate products, and final products of MB are also summarized. An overview of the future perspectives to utilize MB at an industrial scale is also provided. This paper identifies strategies for the development of effective MB photodegradation systems.

Original languageEnglish
Article number242
JournalWater (Switzerland)
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Degradation parameter
  • Degradation products
  • Mechanism
  • Methylene blue (MB)
  • Photodegradation
  • Toxicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Aquatic Science
  • Water Science and Technology


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